Iron is the main building block of the Earth’s outer and inner core and is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth’s crust. The elemental source of iron is in meteorites and many low-oxygen environments, but it should be noted that this metal does not react with water and oxygen. Fresh iron has a silver and gray surface that oxidizes and rusts against oxygen.
Iron extraction from iron ore takes place through physical, mechanical and chemical processes. Extraction of iron from its ore is done using blast furnaces, which is actually a chemical reactor in which a mixture of limestone, coke and iron ore is heated. In order to extract iron, rock ore, coking coal and iron ore will be needed.

Properties of iron

Iron has many properties, including malleability, tensile strength, and thermal and electrical conductivity. Due to these properties, iron can be used in many applications.

Iron applications

Iron is used in various applications due to its reasonable price and very high resistance. Ship and car hulls, building structures, industrial equipment, rail transport, oil and gas industries, electrical equipment and kitchen appliances will be used.

Iron alloys

Steel is one of the most important iron alloys, which is obtained from a combination of iron and carbon and is used in construction, bridge construction and various tools. The presence of less than 2% to 0.02 will produce carbon in steel iron. The strength of steel will increase dramatically with the amount of dissolved carbon. Austenite, semantite, leadborite, perlite and ferrite are other iron alloys.


Iron oxides are hydrated and are found in yellow to light brown color. The hardness of this mineral is very variable and varies between 1 and 4. There are different types of limonite, the difference in the amount of water will be crystallized and hard.


The amount of iron in it is 62.9% and its color will be dark brown to black. The hardness of this mineral is 4.5 and / 55 and it can be mentioned that this mineral has no magnetism. This mineral has an orthorhombic crystal shape.


Magnetite in which the iron in this mineral will be equal to 72.36%. The magnet is black in color and has a opaque appearance. Also, this mineral will have a very high magnetic property, the source of which is magmatic.


Hematite has red, gray, black, black-gray and brown colors and the amount of iron in it is equal to 69.94 percent. This iron mineral has a transparent color and therefore it is used in decorations.